Sex discrimination is treating an employee unfavourably based on their sex. All employees have the right to not be discriminated against based on their sex or sexual orientation (along with other protected characteristics). This right is covered by the Equality Act 2010.
It’s a prominent issue in many workplaces in any of the following circumstances:
Sex discrimination can be direct or indirect, one-off or regular, intentional or unintentional. What’s important to remember though, is that it doesn’t have to be intentional to be unlawful.
There are four main types of sex discrimination: direct, indirect, harassment and victimisation. So, let’s delve into each in a little more detail.
Direct sex discrimination is when an individual is treated less favourably because of either their own sex, their perceived sex, or their association with someone of a particular sex.
Example: putting together a job description that says the position would be best suited to male applicants only.
Indirect sex discrimination is when one of your rules, practices or procedures places employees or applicants of a certain sex at a disadvantage.
Example: assuming the female member of the team will make the brews, take meeting minutes and go out and buy team presents.
It’s worth noting that for someone to make an indirect sex discrimination claim, they must be able to evidence how they were personally disadvantaged as a result, along with how the same treatment would disadvantage other employees or applicants of the same sex.
Harassment in relation to sex discrimination can be split into three categories:
Example: repeatedly asking sexual questions, such as inquiries about someone’s sexual history or their sexual orientation. Or, continually making jokes of a sexual nature or inappropriately touching an employee.
This is when an employee has either made or intends to make a complaint around sex discrimination or harassment or has given or plans to give evidence relating to discrimination or harassment, and is treated adversely as a result.
Example: outcasting the employee in question from team activities and making them feel like an outsider.
Albeit very rarely, every now and then, there may be grounds to lawfully discriminate someone on the grounds of their sex.
Example 1: where it’s necessary to preserve decency or privacy (e.g. a shop assistant providing a bra-fitting service or a prison officer carrying out body searches).
Example 2: if the employee’s required to live in accommodation that isn’t equipped for people of that sex, and it’s not reasonable for the employer to make the necessary adjustments.
Example 3: if a business actively encourages a certain sex to apply for a position to balance out previously under-represented or disadvantaged roles. For example, a construction firm reiterating that female applications are welcome and encouraged.
To prevent sex discrimination rearing its head in the first place, it’s important to have a legally tight, well-communicated and followed Equal Opportunities policy in place.
Your policy should clearly express your anti-discrimination stance and what the repercussions of non-conformity are.
As well as your policy, there are a number of everyday techniques you can use prevent sex discrimination in your business, like:
We’re here to help with everything from creating bespoke policies and terms and conditions of employment, to talking you through disciplinary and dismissal processes.
If you’re already a client you can contact our advice line 24/7 on 0345 844 4848.
Not yet a Citation client? Then just fill out your details in the form opposite and our Employment Law experts will get in touch.
Get more information
Working with our Employment Law and HR consultants gets you ready for anything. In fact, our clients are eight times less likely to be taken to tribunal than the national average.
Join the workplace revolution. 85% of our clients say they have a happier, healthier, more productive team thanks to working with us*.
You didn’t go into business to stress about HR & Employment Law, did you? And, believe us, you don’t have to. 92% of Citation clients say working with us gives them more peace of mind*.
You don’t need more hours in the day to tackle your to-do list. You just need more time spent on what matters to you and your business – and 85% of our clients say they save that kind of valuable time*.
*Based on a 2022 survey of over 600 Citation clients